Climatic influences on salmon populations in the Northeast Pacific
Francis, R.C., and N.J. Mantua. 2003. Climatic influences on salmon populations in the Northeast Pacific. pp. 37-67. In A.D. MacCall and T.C. Wainwright (eds.). Assessing Extinction Risk for West Coast Salmon. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memo, NMFS-NWFSC-56, 198 pp.
A number of recent studies have verified the fact that many stocks of Pacific salmon are threatened with extinction. For example, the Wilderness Society (1993) estimates that naturally reproducing Pacific salmon are mostly extinct or imperiled in 56% of their historic range in the Pacific Northwest and California.
UW Climate Impacts Group